Top 10 programming languages to learn Now

Technology evolves in matter of weeks Experts say that if you’re not coding you might as well be tagged as illiterate in the future. It is important to future-proof yourself by getting to know the leading computer languages out there. Some languages you can get basic information about off the Internet are for free. There are massive online learning courses designed to give you some background on coding which you can finish off by taking formal lessons in established brick-and-mortar schools. If you’re interested here are 10 programming languages you should learn now.

1. Java

Java is the language that powers about 3 million devices ranging from your average household appliance, your car, your smartphone and even the robot that goes around in your house sucking off the dirt from the rug. Java  is considered as “write-once, run-all” language. It means that it is designed to run on multiple operating systems.

Pros:

  • Java is platform independent; it can be run on everything.
  • provides involuntary memory management.
  • There is a large library of pre-built classes.
  • It’s safe. It’s quite tough to spoil your computer through programming in Java.

Cons:

  • It is difficult to compile into a stand-alone application.
  • Memory pointers are not allowed.
  • Most people don’t like object oriented programming.

2. Ruby

Ruby is a simple and readable programming language mainly focused on developing web-based applications. Designed by Yukihiro Matsumoto in 1995, Ruby powers Ruby on Rails, a web development framework on which numerous renowned websites including Github, Scribd and Groupon have been developed. Ruby is regarded as combination of some of the most famous features of Lisp, Pearl and Eiffel.

Pros

  • Deployment is a snap with Capistrano
  • Lots of interesting plug-ins and gems you can use to save time.
  • Active, friendly, helpful community.
  • Lots of good documentation.
  • Built-in testing framework.
  • Encourages good programming patterns.
  • Built-in support for AJAX.

Cons

  • Requires mounds of unit testing (which can easily take more time than coding the app itself).
  • Large web apps become rather unwieldy. Rails is better suited to smaller, tighter code bases. Because it uses a dynamically typed, interpreted language, risk of regression bugs in your app increases exponentially with the size of the code base. Recent advancements in VMs (JRuby, Rubinius) and IDEs (Komodo, IntelliJ, Ruby in Steel),  may help alleviate some of these problems.
  • Hard to debug, step through code, etc. Again, new IDE support may help some with this, but it will be some time before it is on par with, say,ASP.NET.
  • Rails development in a Windows environment is not as well supported as on a Mac.

3. PHP

PHP or also known as pre hypertext processor is a server-side and free scripting language that makes website quite exciting. It is a code that can be mixed with hypertext markup language used to code websites or webpages that you browse over the Internet. PHP is the engine that makes Facebook, Digg and even WordPress work. Frameworks like Yii, CakePHP,PHPDevshell and Akelos are used for development of large-scale Web applications.

Pros

  • It has regular expression support and has an extensive database support
  • There is an extremely large body of built in functions, and there is an extension repository with even more.
  • It’s a quick and easy server side scripting language.

Cons

  • Global configuration parameters can change language semantics, complicating deployment and portability.
  • Plenty of special purpose forms, but insufficient general purpose forms.
  • Lacks named parameters, which have to be simulated with associative arrays or other techniques.
  • Objects are CallByValue by default, which is the opposite of most languages and catches lots of programmers off guard.
  • Nested function declarations also don’t do what you would expect since there are no local scopes.

4. Python

Python is a high-level, server-side language that you will have fun learning. It is a scripting language that is known to power mobile apps and some websites. It is an easy language to learn especially to those that do not have much background in programming or in computer science. Python’s allure comes from its compact nature and readability. Python has a unique combination of being both a capable general-purpose programming language as well as being easy to use for analytical and quantitative computing.

For over a decade, Python has been used in scientific computing and highly quantitative domains such as finance, oil and gas, physics, and signal processing. Python has been used to build massively scalable web applications like Youtube, and has powered much of Google’s internal infrastructure. Companies like Disney, Sony Dreamworks, and Lucasfilm ILM rely heavily on Python to coordinate massive clusters of computer graphics servers to produce the imagery for blockbuster movies.

Pros

  • Python is rooted in an open source solution. This means that the support for it through the community is massive.
  • Much like powerhouses C, C++, and others, Python has very strong object oriented features.
  • Python is one of the most mature languages available. It allows a programmer to rapidly develop and prototype a program. Python has cross platform portability so a programmer can code once and deploy to multiple environments.

Cons

  • Python isn’t the best for memory intensive tasks.
  • Python is interpreted language & is slow compared to C/C++ or java.
  • Python not a great choice for a high-graphic 3d game that takes up a lot of CPU.
  • Python is evolving continuously, with constant evolution there is little substantial documentation available for the language.

5. Javascript

JavaScript is a client side programming language that runs inside a client browser and process commands on client computer rather than server which results in decreased load on server and increased application’s execution speed. JavaScript has been designed by Netscape and there is hardly any website that doesn’t make use of JavaScript.It is derived from a more complex computer language called C. It is a script that makes some websites interactive and enables to play animations as you surf the web.

Pros

  • Being client-side, JavaScript is very fast because any code functions can be run immediately instead of having to contact the server and wait for an answer.
  • JavaScript is relatively simple to learn and implement.
  • JavaScript plays nicely with other languages and can be used in a huge variety of applications. Unlike PHP or SSI scripts, JavaScript can be inserted into any web page regardless of the file extension.
  • Being client-side reduces the demand on the website server.

Cons

  • The code executes on the users’ computer, in some cases it can be exploited for malicious purposes.
  • Using JavaScript limits the accessibility of a Website since old browsers, some mobile devices or screen readers do not recognize JavaScript. Browsers like IE 3.0, Mosaic 3.0, NS 2.0, Opera 2.1. doesn’t support Javascript.
  • Different browsers read JavaScript programs differently. It is suggested that the only way of being absolutely sure that a page will work on different browsers is to test it as widely as possible.

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6. C

C is one of the most widely used programming languages. The syntax of Java and C# are derived from it. Its efficient design construct use machine instructions, and therefore applications that had formerly been coded in assembly language could be run on C compiler. C has facilities for structured programming and allows lexical variable scope.Recursion and C compilers work seamlessly with majority of available computer architectures and operating systems.

Pros

  • C is a case sensitive language.
  • Being easier to use, C allows you to write programs faster. Generally these programs are also easier to debug and easier to maintain. Furthermore, it’s easier to manage large, complex programs in C.

Cons

  • C is not Object Oriented Programming Languages(OOPL) that’s why C++ comes into existence to overcome the disadvantages of C language.
  • There is no run time checking in C language.

7. C++

C++ is a general purpose multi-paradigm spanning compiled language that has both high-level and low-level language features. It was started as an enhancement to the C programming language in 1979.The C++ programming language has proved itself really powerful with applications including domains related to software, server and client and entertainment. Firefox, Winamp and most of the Adobe programs are coded in C++.

Pros

  • C++ is  very powerful, and can be used to create just about any program, including low-level system programs.
  • There is a compiler for C++ on every major operating system. C++ programs that are purposely written for portability will work on many major operating systems with little change in code.
  • C++ is a language which is compiled (transformed from human readable code to low-level machine code), so it can often run faster than languages such as Java, Python, and C#; as it does not depend on an interpreter or a “run-time environment” which must be loaded beforehand.

Cons

  • It is not very safe by itself, as it lacks automatic boundary checks, invalid pointer checks etc, allows for invisible side-effects (causing non-deterministic behavior) and allows implicit type casting. Many security issues and memory leaks are a direct result of this, unless an extra effort is made to prevent them.
  • By default there is no built-in memory management, requiring developers to use external libraries or re-invent the wheel.
  • Its OOP system is rather archaic. requiring explicit virtualization of methods among other things usually reserved for older languages.

8. C#

C# belongs to the Microsoft’s family of programming language and was developed in 2000 to be a part of the first ever release of Microsoft’s prestigious .NET framework. C# is very similar to Java in terms of capabilities. It has been said that C# combines the robustness of C++ with the advanced features of Java. Therefore, if you are good at Java, it is extremely easy to switch to C# and vice-versa.C# language is used to develop almost all types of software applications that come with Visual Studio IDE.

Pros

  • For many, C# has a familiar syntax in that it follows C.
  • Fully integrated with the .NET library, providing access to a great repository of functionality and support.
  • Safer than its namesakes (C++) in that pointer types are not permitted.

Cons

  • Obviously less efficient in execution than C++ because it is ultimately interpreted.
  • Still allows pointers in ‘unsafe’ blocks.
  • Loses any cross-platform capabilities because of the integration with .NET.

9. SQL

SQL or Structured Query Language is actually a database query language. It provides a standardized way of interacting with the underlying database of an application. It is extremely simple to learn and is probably closest to the English language in terms of syntax. Almost every application has a backend database and in order to interact with that you will need to have sound knowledge of SQL.

Pros

  • Better use of memory / CPU. In other words, you don’t have a bunch of CPUs running at 20% utilization any more.
  • High availability because of the hypervisor, not because of clustering. For instance, ESX Server’s ability to automatically move VMs when there’s a problem.
  • Easier to scale up. Since you’re talking VMs, you can move the VM to bigger hardware if there’s a need for more resources. In an ESX environment, the hypervisors can watch load and move VMs around to maximize performance.

Cons

  • Poor performance with heavy I/O
  • Resources are limited by the VMware technology and not the hardware. This immature technology requires extensive testing before it could be deployed to mission-critical production applications with confidence
  • Over allocation of a virtual host. If you have too much running on a host, it’s not just I/O that could be impacted. It could be memory and CPU bottleneck issues on the physical host which impairs the SQL Server.

10.  Objective- C

The purpose of developing Objective-C programming language was to address the deficiencies in C language. However, the latter have gained immense popularity owing to its use in developing applications for Apple’s iPhone and iPad.Sound knowledge of Objective-C would be helpful in landing you a job in companies that develop Apple based software applications.

Pros

  • Objective-C is a very “practical” language. It uses a thin runtime written in C that adds little to the size of the application.
  • The language was implemented on top of existing C compilers rather than new compiler.This allowed ObjC to leverage the huge existing collection of C code, libraries, tools, and mindshare.
  • Objective-C can be summed up as offering much of the flexibility of the later Smalltalk systems, in a language that is deployed as easily as C.

Cons

  • Objective-C does not include a namespace mechanism. Instead programmers are forced to add prefixes to their class names, a poor solution at best.
  • Objective-C does not support operator overloading, unlike some other object-oriented programming languages such as C++.
  • Objective-C allows an object only to inherit from one class.However this can be seen to simplify inheritance structures and thus aid in debugging.

Below in the table we discussed various benchmarks for different programming languages on the basis of different parameters mentioned in table.

Languages

Program Source Code

N

CPU secs

Elapsed secs

Memory KB

Code B

Java

mandelbrot  #2

1,000

0.27

0.27

248

796

Ruby

mandelbrot  #2

16,000

4,392.20

4,394.28

84,388

925

PHP

mandelbrot  #2

16,000

1,208.64

1,209.12

108,408

863

Python

mandelbrot  #2

1,000

7.28

7.40

96,516

777

Javascript

mandelbrot  #2

1,000

Bad Output

353

C

mandelbrot  #2

16,000

5,568.16

5,569.12

4,860

400

C++

mandelbrot  #2

4,000

2.55

2.55

2,720

687

C#

mandelbrot  #2

1,000

0.56

0.56

19,092

484

SQL

    –

    –

    –

    –

   –

    –

Objective-c

mandelbrot  #2

4,000

3.14

3.15

316

400

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